Nginx is one of the most widely used web servers in the world and can be used to host simple websites or also as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and/or HTTP cache system. The software behind Nginx is open-sourced and free.
In this article, we'll walk you through how to install an Nginx web server on your Debian 9 machine and configure it to display a custom HTML page.
Let's get started!
Table of Contents
The first thing we'll go over is how to install Nginx on your Debian 9 machine.
Nginx is available in Debian's default repositories, so installation is a pretty straightforward process.
Run the following commands to update your local
apt package index so we have access to the most recent package lists:
sudo apt-get update
And then you can use install Nginx along with any other required dependencies using this command:
sudo apt-get install nginx
When that command is finished, Nginx will be successfully installed on your machine.
In the next steps, we'll go over some additional configuration you'll need to complete to get Nginx up and running.
Adjust the Firewall
Before we can test Nginx, we need to reconfigure our firewall software to allow access to the service. Nginx registers itself as a service with
ufw, our firewall, upon installation. This makes it rather easy to allow Nginx access.
We can list the applications configurations that
ufw knows how to work with by typing:
sudo ufw app list
You should get a listing of the application profiles:
Available applications: Nginx Full Nginx HTTP Nginx HTTPS OpenSSH
There are three profiles available for Nginx:
- Nginx Full: Opens both port
80(normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port
- Nginx Http: Opens only port
80(normal, unencrypted web traffic)
- Nginx Https: Opens only port
443(TLS/SSL encrypted traffic)
It's recommended that you enable the most restrictive profile that will still allow the traffic you've configured. Since we haven't configured SSL for our server yet, in this guide, we will only need to allow traffic on port
80. When we setup
SSL Encryption later on, we'll change these settings.
You can enable this by typing:
sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'
You can verify the change with this command:
sudo ufw status
Check your Web Server
The Nginx web server should already be up and running.
You can check with the systemd init system to make sure the service is running by typing:
systemctl status nginx
You should see this or something similar in your terminal output:
● nginx.service - A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Mon 2016-04-18 16:14:00 EDT; 4min 2s ago Main PID: 12857 (nginx) CGroup: /system.slice/nginx.service ├─12857 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on └─12858 nginx: worker process
You can access the default Nginx landing page to confirm that the software is running properly. You can access this through your machine's IP address.
When you have your IP address, enter it into your browser's address bar:
You should see the default Nginx landing page, which should look something like this:
Congratulations! You now have a web server running using Nginx!
Configure Nginx to Display Custom HTML
After following the previous steps, you now have an Nginx web server running. Now we can add some custom HTML to display whatever we want instead of the default HTML Nginx displays.
Update Nginx Configuration
By default, Nginx is configured to serve documents out of a directory at
/var/www/html. To have Nginx serve a different site instead, you need to create your own directory within
/var/www for your site. The actual web content will be put in an HTML directory within this directory.
To create this directory (replace the highlighted text with the name of your site or directory):
sudo mkdir -p /var/www/example.com/html
-p flag tells mkdir to create any necessary parent directories along the way.
Now that we have the directory, you need to reassign ownership of the web directories to the normal user account. This will let you write to them without
You can use the
$USER environmental variable to assign ownership to the account that you're currently signed in on (make sure you're not logged in as
root). This will allow you to easily create or edit the content in this directory:
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/example.com/html
The permissions of your web roots should be correct already if you have not modified the umask value, but you can make sure by typing:
sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www
The directory structure is now configured and you can move on.
Create a Sample HTML Page To Display
Now that the directory structure is set up, let's create a default HTML page for your Nginx webserver to display.
index.html file in the directory you just created:
Inside the file, create a really basic HTML file. It will look like this:
<html> <head> <title>Welcome to Example.com!</title> </head> <body> <h1>Success! The example.com server block is working!</h1> </body> </html>
Save and close the file when you are finished.
Configure Nginx to Serve the New HTML File
Now that you have the content created in the new
/var/www/example.com/html directory, you need to tell Nginx to serve that directory instead of the default
/var/www/html it's currently using.
To do this, open the default Nginx configuration file with nano:
sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
You need to change the document
root, specified by the
root directive in the file. Change that line so it points to the directory you created for your site:
Everything else can be kept the same. Save and close the file when you are finished.
Next, test to make sure that there are no syntax errors in any of your Nginx files:
sudo nginx -t
If no problems were found, restart Nginx to enable your changes:
sudo systemctl restart nginx
Nginx should now be serving the new HTML we added.
Test the Results
Now that you are all set up, you should test that your server is functioning correctly. You can do that by visiting your ip address in your web browser:
You should see a page with these words:
If the site works, you have successfully configured Nginx.
After working through this article, you now have an Nginx web server installed, running, and configured to server some custom HTML using your Debian 9 machine.
Thanks for reading and happy coding!